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Knee and Toe Clearances for Wheeled Mobility Users

Knee and Toe Clearances for Wheeled Mobility Users
Clive D’Souza, Jonathan White, Edward Steinfeld, Victor Paquet
IDEA Center, University at Buffalo

Abstract: Adequate clearance space under a design element to the floor is essential so that wheeled mobility users can approach sufficiently close in a forward direction without any obstruction. Such clearance space is critical when using elements like bathroom sinks, drinking fountains, kitchen counter-tops, information kiosks and teller machines.



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Accessibility Standards Documents

U.S. Access Board, 2004. Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Access Board. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from


Anthropometry Research Studies

Das, B., Kozey, J. W., 1999. Structural anthropometric measurements for wheelchair mobile adults. Applied Ergonomics 30 (5), 385-390.

Paquet, V., Feathers, D., 2004. An anthropometric study of manual and powered wheelchair users. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33 (3), 191-204.


Relevant Design Resources

DR #16: Clear floor area for wheeled mobility when reaching or grasping.

DR #20: Functional reach capability for wheeled mobility users