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Turning Space for Wheeled Mobility Users – the 360-deg Turn

Turning Space for Wheeled Mobility Users – the 360-deg Turn
Clive D’Souza, Jonathan White, Edward Steinfeld, Victor Paquet
IDeA Center, University at Buffalo


wheelchair turningAbstract: Sufficient space ought to be provided in the built environment for wheeled mobility users to maneuver and complete a 360-degree turn, when necessary. Further, accessibility guidelines for the built environment need to accommodate the turning space requirements for manual and powered wheelchairs as well as scooters that are becoming increasingly popular since the guidelines and standards were first written.


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Accessibility Standards Documents

Australian Standard, 2001. AS1428.1-2001 Design for access and mobility-Part 1: general requirements for access-new building work. Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia International.

Australian Standard, 1992. AS1428.2-1992 Design for access and mobility-Part 2: enhanced and additional requirements-buildings and facilities. Sydney, Australia: Standards Australia International.

British Standards Institution, 2001. BS8300:2001 Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people-Code of practice. London, U.K.: BSI.

Canadian Standards Association, 2004. CAN/CSA B651-04 accessible design for the built environment standard. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Standards Association.

International Code Council/American National Standards Institute, 2003. ICC/ANSI A117.1-2003, Accessible and usable buildings and facilities. International Code Council, New York.

U.S. Access Board, 2004. Americans with Disabilities Act and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Access Board. Retrieved February 17, 2010, from


Anthropometry Research Studies

Ringaert, L., Rapson, D., Qui, J., Cooper, J., and Shwedyk, E., 2001. Determination of new dimensions for universal design codes and standards with consideration of powered wheelchair and scooter users. Manitoba, CA: Universal Design Institute.


Relevant IDEA Center Publications

Steinfeld, E., Maisel, J., Feathers, D., D'Souza, C., 2010. Anthropometry and Standards for Wheeled Mobility: An International Comparison. Assistive Technology 22 (1), 51-67.


Relevant Design Resources

DR # 9: Scooters in the Built Environment